Intersubjektivitet, Moral og Menneskerettigheter, En Eksistensialistik og Diskursetisk Tilnærming

Øyen, Simen (2005) Intersubjektivitet, Moral og Menneskerettigheter, En Eksistensialistik og Diskursetisk Tilnærming. UNSPECIFIED thesis, University of Bergen.

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Abstract

Intersubjectivity, moral, and human rights – an existentialistic and discourse ethical approach This paper examines the phenomena of intersubjectivity, moral and human rights and reviews these topics on three levels of analysis: one ontological, one moral and one moral-practical level. These matters are approached in an existentialistic and discourse ethical manner in which Jean-Paul Sartre and Jürgen Habermas are exponents of these philosophical movements. Sartre"s theory of intersubjectivity is founded in a phenomenological ontology in which the self-conscious individual "is condemned to be freeâ€? and in which this individual confronts a contingent world of inanimate things whose meaning entirely depends upon what he freely chooses. Each consciousness is fundamentally self-constituting, but stands opposed to nature, history, and other consciousnesses, and is defining and redefining itself, others and the world by choosing his future. The human consciousness is then completely responsible for what it makes of itself. The original meaning of the other and the social world for Sartre is conflict which is revealed in the experience of "the lookâ€? in and through which the self is initially constituted, experiencing itself as an object for others. But this paper suggests that the intersubjectivity revealed in the experience of the "the lookâ€? has normative implications in which the ontological concept of freedom is connected to a moral concept of responsibility. Habermas theory of intersubjectivity is communicative based, and presupposes a community of investigators who endeavour to perform their common task communicatively in which the linguistic domain is the only place where the validity claims of speech acts can be clarified. A presupposition of this discursive validation is that the condition for the truth of statements is the potential agreement of everyone else. Then, by way of argumentation and a rational consensus, to which all speakers have equal access and in which only the "force of the better argument prevailsâ€? the communicative community can reach a mutual recognition and normative self-legislation. This communicative theory lays the foundation for the discourse ethics which presupposes that normative validity claims have a cognitive meaning and that the grounding and validity of all norms is tied to an actually discursive opinion- and willformation and in the last instance is not possible monologically. Here Habermas converts his discourse ethics into democratic theory and institutionalizes the rational discourse through a system of rights and law-making. This represents a tension between facticity and validity and is exemplified by the question of how to transform communicative power into administrative power. Foremost Habermas suggest that only through open public argument and discourse, complex societies can engage in moral and political decision-making. Moral and political decision-making can only be validated through open and intersubjective argumentation where only those norms which can meet with the approval of all affected parts, can claim legitimacy. Politics must therefore be understood as a process of collective opinion- and will-formation, characterized by reasoned dialogue and of self-legislation according to which the addressees of law are simultaneously the authors of their rights - and not the simple aggregation of subjective preferences through voting. This opinion- and will-formation is most importantly diverted through the public sphere. Here Sartre contributes with his idea that political engagement is an ontologically grounded moral imperative. This paper then suggests a concept of an engaged, public sphere.

Item Type: Thesis (UNSPECIFIED)
Uncontrolled Keywords: intersubjectivity; moral; human rights; existentialisme; the look; discourse ethics; deliberative democracy; public sphere; Sartre, J.; Habermas, J.
Subjects: Philosophie > Seminararbeiten, Diplom, Dissertationen, Arbeitspapiere > Ethik und Sozialphilosophie, Rechtsphilosophie
Depositing User: Stefan Köstenbauer
Date Deposited: 10 May 2007
Last Modified: 08 Sep 2011 18:52
URI: http://sammelpunkt.philo.at/id/eprint/1543

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