by Dr. Gerhard GELBMANN
Wittgenstein Archives (WAB) at the University of Bergen (UiB) /
Wittgensteinarkivet ved Universitetet i Bergen
from mid March 2002 until mid September 2002
Norges Forskningsåd / The Research Council of Norway
I. Application: The Project's Idea
II. Activities During Project
III. Works Read
IV. Work Given
V. Works Recommended For Purchase
VI. Epilogue: What I Liked and What I Did Not Like
I am familiar with the Wittgenstein Archives at the University of Bergen (WAB) from my sojourns as a guest-researcher in autumn 1997 and summer 1998 when I was working on my Dr.phil.-thesis.1 My last research project at the University of Vienna was placed within the frame of the Pragmatic Theory of Communication,2 dealing with Philosophical Foundations of Communication.3 The Pragmatic Theory of Communication itself has noteworthy roots in Ludwig WITTGENSTEIN's "pragmatic turn" as well as in certain concepts of his philosophy, developed in his outstanding "Tractatus logico-philosophicus", furthermore in the famous, but unfinished (and unedited) "Big Typescript",4 in his "Philosophische Untersuchungen" and "Bemerkungen über die Grundlagen der Mathematik", yet perhaps also in the so-called "Bemerkungen über die Philosophie der Psychologie" and "Letzte Schriften über die Philosophie der Psychologie".
So I am interested in doing research on historical and systematic connections of this theory to WITTGENSTEIN's Philosophy in two main fields:
Both areas are partly unanswered, yet perhaps treatable by developing and furthering the semiotic notions contained in WITTGENSTEIN's thinking.
a Pragmatic Theory of Meaning a Pragmatic Theory of Emotions
With 1. I intend to go beyond any so-called statement-view of semantic information. Especially assumptions of meaning as such shall be questioned as being sufficient for an analysis of communication.5 WITTGENSTEIN's philosophy shows that natural languages, since they are rooted in a practice and hence in concrete social systems, require a pragmatic level of theorising about how meaning is interpersonally construed. Therefore it is important to find out where and how semiotic subjectivity in different modes of sign-use comes into consideration. Tracing such notions in WITTGENSTEIN's writings would be an important step. Especially his later writings in the area of Philosophy of Psychology shall be investigated, along with the relevant interpretations and successors.6
With 2. I feel inclined to look how far I can take my hypothesis that in the Pragmatic Theory of Communication emotions can be explained as intrapersonally produced. I hope to find supportive thoughts among WITTGENSTEIN's many remarks as well as among his numerous commentaries. These thoughts arose when I was at the International Summer School in Oslo 1999 where I delivered a semester-paper on Arne NÆSS' "Livsfilosofi".7
For both concerns I know the WAB to be the right place. It is an institution that in the last years more and more has turned into an outstanding research site specialised on WITTGENSTEIN. Not only can one find the relevant literature there; texts and any findings there are always directly comparable to the sources and their transcriptions into the electronic edition. Besides these resources it is the intellectual surroundings I am already familiar with that support my wish.
I hope that I can work on these complex of themes again at the WAB, because there I would have exhaustive access to all that I need to complete my task: the original materials or the copies respectively, the electronic edition as a valuable tool, collections of published and unpublished texts, the scholars from the WAB and from all over the world, the tradition of stimulating debates.
Making WITTGENSTEIN fruitful for concepts of an analysis of communication
is the kernel of my striving. Since Bergen has become the European centre
for studying WITTGENSTEIN, it suggests itself to return once more to the
as the recognised institution, along well-established connections between
the Department of Philosophy
at the University of Vienna
and the WAB. With the background
of splendid experiences from my former times at the
and not without a sound knowledge of Norwegian language and culture I would
estimate to have another chance to work there.--
delivered (in a slightly different English and Norwegian version) in about autumn 2000;
the project and its funding were approved in spring 2001
back to content
I arrived at the WAB in mid-March 2002 and started my work with reading various papers, books, articles, but soon also by participating in informal and later on formal discussions. Among my partners in such philosophical conversations, mostly during March and April, but partly also until the end of my sojourn, were (in a reconstructed chronological order) Alois PICHLER (UiB), Simo SÄÄTELÄ (UiB), Ralph JEWELL (UiB), Aleksander MOTTURI (Åbo Akademi), Michael LUNTLEY (University of Warwick), Harald JOHANNESSEN (UiB), Kevin M. CAHILL (UiB), Knut ÅGOTNES (UiB), Daniel APOLLON (HIT Centre and UiB), and Richard Arnljot SØRLI (UiB); and on a more private basis I had frequent philosophical contact with Javier Garcia WEGENER (Universidad de Oviedo), Petra HEDBERG (UiB) and some conversations with Christopher Michael SPERBERG-McQUEEN (HIT Centre and MIT). Later on Edmund RUNGGALDIER (University of Innsbruck) joined in for a couple of days in May and Edward VANHOUTTE (CTB - Centrum voor Teksteditie en Bronnenstudie, Gent), Monika SEEKIRCHER (University of Innsbruck, Brenner-Archiv), Allan JANIK (University of Innsbruck, Brenner-Archiv) and Xabier INSAUSTI (University of San Sebastian) in June. In August came Ludovic SOUTIF (Université Paris 1 - Panthéon Sorbonne) and Anat BILETZKI (University of Tel-Aviv), both among the scholarly most interesting people I have ever met. (Less important and less frequent partners in philosophical conversations are left unmentioned.)
The themes we entered in always also concerned Ludwig WITTGENSTEIN, but touched as well authors like Sir Joshuah REYNOLDS, Frank Plumpton RAMSEY, Richard Bevan BRAITHWAITE, Sir Karl R. POPPER, Jürgen HABERMAS, Bertrand RUSSELL, Georg Henrik von WRIGHT, Jaakko HINTIKKA, Francis BACON, Cora DIAMOND, Rush RHEES, Gottlob FREGE, Elizabeth ANSCOMBE, Paul WATZLAWICK, Alfred AYER, Gregory BATESON, and classics like ARISTOTLE, PLATO, FICHTE, THOMAS AQUINAS, besides many others thinkers, commentors on WITTGENSTEIN, and philosophers.
I attended, of course, the lectures given by Michael LUNTLEY ("Wittgenstein: the conditions for the possibility of judgement") on four occasions in April 2002. In May 2002 Aleksander MOTTURI ("Wittgenstein, the Jew and Philosophical Engagement") and Edmund RUNGGALDIER ("The Making of Individuals and Identity: Against Conventionalism") were lecturing, both being discussed even after their leave. I also went to lectures at Det samfunnsvitenskapelige fakultet (SVF) given by Nancy FRASER ("Distorted Beyond all Recognition: A Rejoinder to Axel Honneth") and a certain Eli ZARETSKY ("September Eleventh and the Problem of Ontological Security", whose ajoining discussion was one of the worst in regard to the lecturer's ability of answering the questions I have ever been to) towards the end of May 2002. In June I visited the first part of the lectures of Xabier INSAUSTI ("Philosophie und Kultur. Spanien und Europa" in German).
Until the end of April 2002 I had finished a paper which I wrote under the impression of Alois PICHLER's doctoral dissertation, but had also worked on other publications, also under the influence of what I previously had thought and gathered at the WAB (in my sojourns of 1997 and 1998), linked to my recent work at home about the Pragmatologic Model Theory of Herbert STACHOWIAK.8 This paper on PICHLER is written in German and is titled "Skript, Text, Werk, Album".9 It is published in a virtual and open digital archive of e-texts "Sammelpunkt. Elektronisch archivierte Theorie" (maintained by Herbert HRACHOVEC, University of Vienna) as well as in the form of a personal web-site of mine (I might add it to a collection of relevant essays and edit it within a book). It concerns the philological as well as hermeneutical complexity of dealing with WITTGENSTEIN's Nachlass and tries to define PICHLER's notions "script", "text", "work", "album" (to use a rough English translation) in terms of the aforementioned Pragmatologic Model Theory.
Already towards the end of April 2002 local students (hovedfag filosofi) approached me, if I would set up an informal seminar or a reading-circle for casual round-table meetings of hovedfagstudenter in philosophy, just to exchange experiences, probably also to further each other's work. Our constitutional meeting was at the WAB on Friday, 26th April at 11 a.m.10 We decided to call it "philosophy round table" and had all in all eight meetings from May 2nd until June 21st, 2002 (we ended with the declared common interest in again taking up these casual and liberal meetings with August 2002). The meetings used to set off with discussing certain passages in WITTGENSTEIN's writings, whose selection were commonly agreed upon in the foregoing meeting, and soon the discussions spread out, arriving at important questions such as "What does 'Grammar' mean" or which role does "ordinary language" play, always referring to WITTGENSTEIN's philosophy. I also asked students to present their own ideas about their work by giving short talks, and I saw it as a good occasion for personal as well as academic exchange, where my role was situated somewhere between an advisory senior member and an equal participant who tried to let the table not become too square.
With mid May 2002 I started giving a serious of lectures circling around or related to the theme "Semiotic Subjectivity".11 I was advised to start with the lecture dealing with HINTIKKA's concept of Pragmatics and with LUNTLEY's approach in his lectures (cf. sup.), since the other lectures would either be too technical or refer to still unpublished work (I would have preferred a different order, starting with what now is lecture #2). At the beginning of June I lectured within the same main theme on a more technical subject, the pragmatologic Theory of models by Herbert STACHOWIAK (on which I had also worked during the last 15 months at least).
In mid May 2002 I was invited to participate in the work of the editorial board of the open digital archive of e-texts "Sammelpunkt. Elektronisch archivierte Theorie" (cf. sup.), and I immediately took up this new challenge by trying to attract contributions within guest-researches at the WAB and among the staff and students at the Department of Philosophy at UiB. I discussed these matters with Herbert HRACHOVEC (University of Vienna) in mid-June during a short sojourn in Vienna (cf. inf.).
At the same time I was also asked to contribute to the international project "Tracing Wittgenstein" (coordination: Herbert HRACHOVEC, University of Vienna; Dieter KÖHLER, University of Karlsruhe; Primary Sources: Alois PICHLER, UiB) by co-commenting WITTGENSTEIN's Nachlass-Manuscript MS 115, which I gradually took up by trying to concentrate on points which were of particular interest for my current project at the WAB.
From June 7th until June 10th
2002 I could take part in the "Wittgenstein
seminar at Tørvis Hotel, Marifjøra in Luster. Rules and expressions:
The grammar of use and the expressiveness of meaning in Wittgenstein's
late philosophy" (link dates from 11th June 2002, might
soon expire) thanks to some extra funding I got from the NFR.
This conference was co-organised by the Department
of Philosophy at the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein
Archives at UiB, the Collège
International de Philosophie, Paris, and the Centre de cooperation
franco-norvégien en sciences socials et humaines, MSH, Paris.
Antonia SOULEZ and Arild UTAKER were responsible for this nicely set meeting
and its programme, Alois PICHLER built up the informative web-site (loc.
In restricting myself to the most relevant events, I have to mention the contributions of Allan JANIK ("Impure reason vindicated", a masterly paper of profound historical knowledge, yet partly read to fast for a non-native speaker), Alois PICHLER ("A polyphonic reading of PI: §§156-178", well presented but with an understanding of what commonly is taken as "behaviourism" which is quite different from mine), Simo SÄÄTELÄ ("'Eine Einstellung zur Seele' and the concept of a person", a fine account of the notion of "attitude" in WITTGENSTEIN's writing, partly akin to what I call "socio-semiotic subjects"), and Kevin M. CAHILL ("What Kripke missed: The antinomical structure of the remarks on rule-following", a clever study which induced fruitful discussions and was partly too dense to be captured at once), among others. Interestingly enough, as already at the aforementioned occasions (lectures, seminars), the theme of "aspect" was of great significance; the contributions of Antonia SOULEZ ("Writing 'in the sense of the whole' (im Sinne des Ganzen): aspects and resonances") and of Jean-Philippe NARBOUX ("Imagination, expressiveness and the problem of aspects") have to be mentioned.
It was an estimated occasion for me to meet Allan JANIK for the first time in my life, and the whole setting gave room to many discussions surrounding the theme, philosophy, family and life of Ludwig WITTGENSTEIN. That a local and son of a late acquaintance of WITTGENSTEIN, Harald VATNE from Skjolden, guided us to the very place where the remaining foundations of WITTGENSTEIN's cabin can be inspected, was another experience worth remembering; Harald VATNE also had some stories about WITTGENSTEIN, his conduct and relationships towards his Norwegian neighbours at this site, and all this gave a vivid impression.
A practical side of some rule-following was displayed in some friendly football-matches at the gorgeous Scandinavian summer evenings (on all three evenings, with Simo, Alois, Jean-Phillippe and me as permanent participants, but once also Arild, Ralph and Knut took part, all three of them in valueable positions and with great effort). The density of such a form of encountering does not allow for a full account, but I profited highly in various directions, not at least insofar as I learned to know highly ranking scientists from a personal and almost familiar point of view.
My personal contribution to this conference was originally planned as a paper (something like "Grammar and Pragmatics"), but since I got no lecture time and was not scheduled, I did not write it. My thoughts on this subject in its particular reference to WITTGENSTEIN can be extracted from GELBMANN 2000, GELBMANN 2001 (op. cit. inf.) and others, hitherto unpublished notes and writings and might be explicated later on more thoroughly and for easier access (yet I want to draw the reader's attention to my term "social ontology" in my written lectures given here, cf. inf., stemming from my contributions to the "philosophy round table").
From the June 13th until June 19th 2002 I spent a couple of days at home in Austria to meet my professor Herbert HRACHOVEC in Vienna:12 I had to talk with him personally about formal and technical matters regarding the electronic Archive "Sammelpunkt" (cf. sup.) and the project "Tracing Wittgenstein" (cf. sup.). I furthermore had to meet my publisher, Verlag Peter Lang, Filiale Wien, and I brought from home and took home some material (mostly books and notes). Until beginning of the new semester in Bergen, I spent all the working days (except reported absences) and often even weekends at my research site or at least in Bergen (since I like to read in cafés or outside in sun-shine, I have to add this reservation; but even if I was sitting at some bench in the wood of the near-by hill called Fløyen, I was reading philosophy, and if I was walking under these marvellous trees, my mind wrestled with philosophical questions, as there are no holidays from philosophy). Office neighbours (like Cecilie T. CARLSEN) or neighbours and friends in my student hostel were quite astonished about the length of my working day ("Er du ennå her?" or "Var du her hele tiden?" were frequent questions).-
On June 20th I attended two lectures at AKSIS / HIT Centre (the embracing institutional construction of my hosting institute). Kjersti Børnestad BERG gave a presentation of her developing master-thesis ("A Computational Model for MLCD") who with the help of Paul MEURER (from the HIT Centre) works with a special method for text-encoding programming called "GODDAG" by making applicative use of the expertise of C. M. SPERBERG-McQUEEN (HIT Centre and MIT) and Claus HUITFELDT (HIT Centre). Afterwards Claus HUITFELDT lectured on the semantics of Mark-Up-Languages and their representation ("Skeletons in the Closet: Saying What Markup Means"). The whole morning was filled with rather technical and for my part difficult discussions on these subjects which on a superficial estimation seem to imply not much philosophical import. Yet I am personally struck by the acquaintance these themes have with my own attempts in Pragmatologic Model Theory (cf. inf.) and Semiotics. It is moreover worth mentioning that the problems of text-encoding lie at the very bottom of what the Wittgenstein Archives (WAB) meant and depicted during the time of transcribing WITTGENSTEIN's Nachlass for the Bergen Electronic Edition (BEE)!13
In the last third of June 2002 I started with some working through WITTGENSTEIN's
115 and HRACHOVEC' commentary on it,14
partly by adding my own comment into the appropriate file (construed by
HRACHOVEC) of the APE programme
(devised by Dieter KÖHLER, and for the time being still a beta-version
under testing and improvement). This intelligent software allows not
only to use the BEE
in combination of producing a commentary to parts of the Nachlass, it also
is supposed to support common work on the same commentary, shared on-line
by several persons. This work provides also some further connections to
my current project insofar MS 115 contains significant thoughts
of WITTGENSTEIN about the expression of a feeling as an artificial means
of communication ("Äußerung eines Gefühls als ein künstliches
The main obstacle from May onwards had been to install the necessary software and to get the programme running. Unfortunately until the end of my sojourn not much was accomplished in this respect on my research site, yet I personally worked on a co-comment of MS 115 (starting from HRACHOVEC' remarks), but could not access the file it was saved in from around end of June 2002 onwards due to changes in the software-updates I could not follow, and due to the lack of help I was promised but did not receive. I have hopes that a participation in this project is still possible, from Vienna or some other place. On the other hand, this project is still under development, and it undergoes a kind of experimental stage, so in this sense my contribution was not in vain, although lost.
With July 2002 my book Observations on Transactions. A Discussion of Watzlawick's Second Axiom. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang came out, as already announced (cf. inf.). If somebody, preferably a reputed scholar, wants to review it in a philosophical or other appropriate scientific journal, the editor of the going to be publisher of this review shall contact
Peter Lang GmbH
Europäischer Verlag der Wissenschaften
Eschborner Landstrasse 42-50,
D-60489 Frankfurt am Main
in order to obtain a copy of my book for the reviewer.
At the beginning of July 2002 my application as a "seminarleder" for the examen philosophicum (haustsemester 2002) at UiB was positively accepted, so I will be teaching Philosophy of Science for students at Det matematisk-naturvitenskapelige fakultet (vitenskapsfilosofi for realistene) in autumn 2002.
The July 2002 I spent mostly with reading (cf. inf.); I also did some minor work in correcting, updating and overworking my GELBMANN 200015 for a possible publication within the next two years and of my recently published GELBMANN 200216 in case a second edition will then have been become desirable.
Towards the end of July I allowed myself to go on a trip to Northern Norway (to the area of Bodø and Fauske), enjoying a train-trip from the 19th July to the 30th July through great and impressive landscapes and doing some mountain walking and hiking (near and partly on top of some of the Sandvasstindane). I also had a glance at Trondheim and put a brief visit to old friends who moved to Halden, where I looked at some spectacular historical monuments (Brekke Sluser, Fredriksten festning). My mastering of the Norwegian language proved to be helpful in furthering my knowledge about the decisive traits that formed the Norwegian national character, the mentality and culture of Norway, a country which alone for its nature and people is amiable and worth loving. This did not keep me from reading, though. One may not say that I ever regretted coming to Norway, especially in summer, and I personally would prefer my research institution, the WAB, to be rather situated in Tromsø than in rainy Bergen ...
With August 2002 two new guest researches arrived who deserve exlusive mentioning (cf. sup.), Ludovic SOUTIF (Université Paris 1 - Panthéon Sorbonne) and Anat BILETZKI (University of Tel-Aviv). We all three soon got involved, partly together with the most agitated and busy Alois PICHLER, in discussions i.a. on HINTIKKA's theory of WITTGENSTEIN's dyslexia, on the methodological continuity of the role of Heinrich Rudolf HERTZ' for WITTGENSTEIN, on the notion of "text" and related subjects, but also on "insight", "decision", "construction" and "infinity" in WITTGENSTEIN's Philosophy of Mathematics and on the "gates", as Anat calls it, we have to access WITTGENSTEIN's relation to religion. One main theme for me was JANIK & TOULMIN 1973, JANIK 1994/95 and JANIK 1999 on their understanding of Heinrich R. HERTZ, from which set off a debate about the German terms (and their translations into English) of "Bild", "Vorstellung" and "Darstellung", mainly in WITTGENSTEIN's "Tractatus" as well as in HERTZ's "Prinzipien der Mechanik".17
In August 2002 I chiefly worked on reading RUSSELL and HERTZ, on writing on STACHOWIAK's Theory of Modelling and its relation to HERTZ's thinking for a book I am still labouring on,18 and I went on overworking my long doctoral dissertation,19 especially by taking care of new findings in WITTGENSTEIN and in secondary literature, but also of RUSSELL's papers on the Logical Theory of Types, on Knowledge and other themes (both these my books are still unfinished, but earlier versions of some main thoughts have already been published). These works deal with the notion of "Pragmatic Theory", and the second book has a tighter connection to the pragmatic function of feelings in communication (cf. also GELBMANN 2002), whereas the first book tries to envisage the problem of theorising about "meaning" as a reduction of non-statement-view-Theories to statement-view-theories.
Towards the end of August 2002 Ludovic SOUTIF gave a lecture ("Inside and Outside Mathematics: The Limits of Wittgenstein's Constructivism") which led to ideas of a common paper "On Attitudes in Philosophy of Mathematics" (working title) which in August and September was still under discussion and will be pursued in the comming months. Anat BILETZKI lectured on "Wittgenstein and Religion", a theme which we had entered already in our conversations at lunch (that time among Anat and Alexander BILETZKI, Ludovic SOUTIF, Ralph JEWELL, Alois PICHLER, and me), and on the same day (actually, before she lectured) I presented my book Observations on Transactions. A Discussion of Watzlawick's Second Axiom by giving a short talk within my series of lectures, this time on "Persons as Socio-Semiotic Subjects. Semiotic Subjectivity III". The discussion of my talk brought about i.a. SOUTIF's comment that my (or WATZLAWICK et al.'s) usage of the term "transaction" is in a similar way via analogiae attributionalis (my coining) than WITTGENSTEIN's (in "Philosophische Grammatik" I, III, §44, and i.a. in "Big Typescript" TS 213: 58). Another point was that I come from a completely different philosophical background (PICHLER, in referring to my correction of WATZLAWICK et al.'s terms of "metacommunication" and "level" with "metainformation" or "transaction" and "aspect", saw me in a late whirl of the current of logical positivism; I myself would see me more as belonging to a later form of radical objective social constructivism). I found BILETZKI's questions for clarification of terms (like "metacommunication", "metainformation", "transaction", "semantic") helpful, and even though they were combined with the remark that she does not know any of the authors I am quoting, I did not comprehend her as a profound critic or hostile to my approach. I went too far astray in attributing WITTGENSTEIN the avoidance of the term "ordinary language" in my critique of a concept of "ordinary communication", and I owe Ludovic SOUTIF acknowledgement for having drawn my attention to the "Blue Book" in this matter (so I had to add corrections, cf. loc. cit.). Nevertheless I stick to my criticism, which overtly and mostly was turned against Jürgen HABERMAS (and about this point I also discussed with a colleague in teaching at the Department of Philosophy, UiB, Petra HEDBERG, via e-mail). I hope to find time to encounter BILETZKI's argument that in my criticism of HABERMAS I also "have an ideology" (I am planning to do that via a thorough e-mail or a letter). Moreover I would like to use this future opportunity for a comment on her remarks, made within our intensive discussion, viz. that in the example of the tensions between Israeli and Palestinians the conflict lies not so much in the structure of their mutual assumptions since "they have no assumptions about each other" (being said with hindsight to BILETZKI's engagement in an Israeli Human Rights Movement called B'Tselem, cf. inf.). My opinion is not backed up by such experiences as she must have, but nevertheless I think she is wrong.
At the end of August 2002 I went to a talk on Human Rights (on the background of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict) and B'Tselem given by Anat BILETZKI at the Raftohuset in Bergen. I found this, as a philosopher with ethical engagement and aware of the current political situation in that region as well as this situation's connection to the current politics of and in the USA, most interesting, so I attended her lecture on the evening of 2nd of Sept. 2002 and also announced it via e-mail, by attracting some students and friends. Towards beginning of September 2002 the "philosophy round table" was taken up again, on a more self-organising basis with a first autumn meeting on Sept. 4th 2002 in a tiny group (the last meeting I am to attend). On Sept. 6th 2002, when time was already becoming short, Daniel APOLLON (HIT Centre and UiB) approached me with a quite unexpected idea, viz. that I am invited to one of his seminars to talk about philosophical impact on "humanistisk informatikk" and lead a discussion for two lessons on Sept. 11th 2002. The theme (in Norwegian / my translation into English) was "Deltaker og tilskuer / participants and spectators", and partly drew on a WITTGENSTEINian view on the digital world and on my recently published book (cf. inf.).
On request of Alois PICHLER and Eldbjørg GUNNARSON, I led a group of guest researches at Marie Curie Training Sites and Research Infrastructures and respective hosts and interested students at UiB up the "byfjellene" (the mountains near the city), setting off from Fløyen to go up the Rundemanen and over the Vidda to Ulriken, on Sunday, 9th of Sept. 2002. People from quite different academic as well as cultural backgrounds liked the tour. To my complete astonishment I enthusiastically was thanked for something which I just did out of fun. We were lucky with the weather, though ...
Summing up I have to state that the first aim of my project, viz. undertaking steps towards a Pragmatic Theory of Meaning, can mainly be found in the book I am still writing on, i.e. GELBMANN 2003, besides the parts already contained in GELBMANN 2000 or in other articles (cf. my publication list). The second goal, viz. steps towards a Pragmatic Theory of Emotions, has only been reached partly and not to my complete satisfaction, cf. GELBMANN 2002. Further work in this direction might follow. As stated in my project proposal (cf. sup.), both aspects of my research interest remain within the frame of the Pragmatic Theory of Communication. WITTGENSTEIN is in both directions not necessarily the clearest thinker, nevertheless one of the first entering these fields.
Let me finish with stating a commitment to the University
of Bergen as hopefully an institution I can on professional academic
basis as well as in regards of philosophical research and teaching keep
in contact with during the coming decades, even besides of any past or
future contacts with the WAB,
contacts I currently neither regret nor intend to avoid. So let me express
my intend to attempt to attract funds for another research sojourn here.--
III. WORKS READ OR USED20
ABREU-E-SILVA NETO, Norberto (2001): "Wittgenstein's Philosophy Throughout the Corners of Brazil". In: Haller & Puhl 2001a: 36-43
ALBRITTON, Rogers (1959, 1966): "On Wittgenstein's Use of the term 'Criterion'", The Journal of Philosophy LVI: 845-857. In: Pitcher 1966: 231-250
AMBROSE, Alice; LAZEROWITZ, Morris (1972): Ludwig Wittgenstein. Philosophy and Language. London: Allen & Unwin
AMBROSE, Alice (1972): "Ludwig Wittgenstein: A Portrait". In: Ambrose & Lazerowitz 1972: 13-25
ANSCOMBE, Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret (1976): "The Question of Linguistic Idealism", Acta Philosophica Fennica XXVIII, 1-3, Essays on Wittgenstein in Honour of G. H. von Wright. Amsterdam: North-Holland: 188-215
ARNSWALD, Ulrich (2001): "Aktenvermerk: Betriebsunfall 'Wittgenstein, Ludwig'". In: Haller & Puhl 2001a: 44-52
ARREGUI, Jorge V. (1997): "On Wittgenstein's so-called pragmatism. Some remarks from Vico". In: Weingartner & Schurz & Dorn 1997a: 10-15
AYER, Alfred Jules (1954, 1966): "Can There Be A Private Language?", Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volume XXVIII: 63-76. In: Pitcher 1966: 251-266
BACHMAIER, Peter (1995): "Die Logik der Differenz der Sprachspiele und das transzendentale Sprachspiel". In: Johannessen & Nordenstam 1995: 601-607
BACHMAIER, Peter (1997): "Wittgenstein's Sprachspiel-Pragmatik als Pragmatik der Differenz". In: Weingartner & Schurz & Dorn 1997a: 16-20
BAMBROUGH, Renford (1960/1961, 1966): "Universals and Family Resemblances", Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society LXI: 207-222. In: Pitcher 1966: 186-204
BAUM, Wilhlem (1997): "Der Klagenfurter Popper-'Nachlass' und seine Relevanz für die zeitgenössische Philosophie", Nachrichten Forschungsstelle und Dokumentationszentrum für österreichische Philosophie 8: 37-44
BEARDSMORE, Richard W. (1996): "If a Lion Could Talk ...". In: Johannessen & Nordenstam 1996: 41-59
BILETZKI, Anat (1997): "Are Speech Acts Language Games (and Vice Versa)?". In: Weingartner & Schurz & Dorn 1997a: 60-65
BIRK, Andrea (2001): "Therapie oder Täuschung. Vom unterschiedlichen Umgang mit dem Leser bei Ludwig Wittgenstein und Fritz Mauthner". In: Haller & Puhl 2001a: 101-107
BLOOR, David (1996): "What did Wittgenstein Mean by 'Institution'?". In: Johannessen & Nordenstam 1996: 60-74
BOEDEKER, Edgar C., Jr. (2001): "Wittgenstein's Criticism of Russell's Distinction Between Pure and Applied Logic". In: Haller & Puhl 2001a: 119-124
BOERO, Mario (1998): "Lo Indecible y el Zen en la Vida de Wittgenstein", Logos. Revista Cuatrimestral de la Escuela de Filosofia Universidad de La Salle 77: 35-66
BONK, Sigmund (1997): "Hans Vaihingers fiktionalistischer Pragmatismus: Eine kritische Erinnerung". In: Weingartner & Schurz & Dorn 1997a: 66-71
CAHILL, Kevin M. (2001): "Wittgenstein and Spengler". In: Haller & Puhl 2001a: 131-136
CAVELL, Stanley (1962, 1966): "The Availability of Wittgenstein's Later Philosophy", The Philosophical Review LXXI: 67-93. In: Pitcher 1966: 151-185
CAVELL, Stanley (1995): Philosophical Passages: Wittgenstein, Emerson, Austin, Derrida. Oxford: Blackwell
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WEINGARTNER, Paul; SCHURZ, Gerhard; DORN, Georg (Eds.) (1997b): The Role of Pragmatics in Contemporary Philosophy. Papers of the 20th International Wittgenstein-Symposium, Kirchberg am Wechsel 1997. Vol.2 Contributions of the Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society Vol.VI. Kirchberg am Wechsel
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WITTGENSTEIN, Ludwig (1930-1932, 1999): Filosofi. German - Swedish edition of TS 213: §§ 86-93 by Lars Hertzberg and Aleksander Motturi. Göteborg: Glänta
WRIGHT, Georg Henrik von (1982, 1986, 1990): Wittgenstein. Oxford: Blackwell. German by Joachim Schulte: Wittgenstein. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp
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use of the terms 'Sinn', 'sinnlos', 'unsinnig', 'wahr', and 'Gedanke' in
Draft at the Wittgenstein Archives at the University of
Bergen, Norway, Dec. 2001: 1-8 (copyright reserved, not for publishing).
IV. WORK GIVEN
GELBMANN, Gerhard: "Skript, Text, Werk, Album. Zu Alois Pichlers Umgang mit Wittgensteins Schreiben", electronic document: http://h2hobel.phl.univie.ac.at/~yellow/Wittgenstein/Pichler.html, also available at the open digital archive of e-texts "Sammelpunkt. Elektronisch archivierte Theorie" (last update: May 2002)
GELBMANN, Gerhard (2002): Observations on Transaction. A Discussion of Watzlawick’s Second Axiom. European University Studies: Ser. 20, Philosophy, Vol.645. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang
Lectures (delivered in speech and as essays):
GELBMANN, Gerhard: "Pragmatics and the Conceptual Constitutivity of the Social (contra Hintikka and Luntley). Semiotic Subjectivity I", May 14th, 2002, seminarrom 373 at Filosofisk institutt ved UiB; background paper cf.: http://h2hobel.phl.univie.ac.at/~yellow/projects/lecture1.htm, also available at the open digital archive of e-texts "Sammelpunkt. Elektronisch archivierte Theorie" (last update: May 2002)
GELBMANN, Gerhard: "An Outline of Pragmatologic Model-Theory (sec. Stachowiak). Semiotic Subjectivity II", June 3rd, 2002, Lunch room at the HIT Centre; paper cf.: http://h2hobel.phl.univie.ac.at/~yellow/projects/lecture2.htm, also available at the open digital archive of e-texts "Sammelpunkt. Elektronisch archivierte Theorie" (last update: June 2002)
GELBMANN, Gerhard: "Persons as Socio-Semiotic Subjects. Semiotic Subjectivity III. Presentation of Observations on Transaction", August 30th, 2002, Lunch room 15.00-16.30, at the HIT Centre; handout cf.: http://h2hobel.phl.univie.ac.at/~yellow/projects/lecture3.htm, also available at the open digital archive of e-texts "Sammelpunkt. Elektronisch archivierte Theorie" (last update: September 2002)
philosophy round table
Deltaker og tilskuer / participants and spectators (Hovedfagseminar Seksjon for Humanistisk Informatikk, UiB, Daniel APOLLON)
In other respects and in later works, I might benefit from my experiences
in a yet unpredictable way.--
The following bibliography is kept short on purpose; it is by no means complete (and does not consider articles or papers). It only contains my suggestions for literature that should be bought and made available at the WAB, partly because I lacked these books, partly because I thought it would be recommendable for other researchers to have them. This includes, of course, that sufficient financial means are provided for these necessary investments, money that obviously lack at the moment.
V. WORKS RECOMMENDED FOR PURCHASE
DRURY, Maurice O'Connor (1973, 1996): The Danger of Words and writings on Wittgenstein. London: Routledge & Kegan; Bristol: Thoemmes
FANN, K. T. (1969): Wittgenstein's Conception of Philosophy. Oxford: Blackwell
FURUTA, Hirokiyo (1994, 1996): Wittgenstein und Heidegger. "Sinn" und "Logik" in der Tradition der analytischen Philosophie. Epistemata, Würzburger wissenschaftliche Schriften, Reihe Philosophie. Würzburg: Königshausen
GEHLHAAR, Sabine S. (Hrg.) (2000): Ludwig Wittgenstein. Dartford: Junghans
HACKER, Peter Michael Stephan (1972*, 1986, 1997): Insight and Illusion: Themes in the Philosophy of Wittgenstein. Bristol: Thoemmes Press21
STACHOWIAK, Herbert (1955): Geschichte der Axiomatik: Die Entwicklung der Axiomatik von den Anfängen deduktiven Denkens bis zur Ausbildung des klassisch-griechischen Wissenschaftstypus durch Aristoteles. Dissertation, Freie Universität Berlin
STACHOWIAK, Herbert (1965, 1969): Denken und Erkennen im kybernetischen Modell. Wien: Springer
STACHOWIAK, Herbert (1973): Allgemeine Modelltheorie. Wien: Springer
STACHOWIAK, Herbert (Hrg.) (1983): Modelle – Konstruktion der Wirklichkeit. München: Fink
STACHOWIAK, Herbert (Hrg.) (1987): Pragmatik. Handbuch pragmatischen Denkens. Band II Der Aufstieg pragmatischen Denkens im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. Hamburg: Meiner
STACHOWIAK, Herbert (Hrg.) (1989): Pragmatik. Handbuch pragmatischen Denkens. Band III Allgemeine philosophische Pragmatik. Hamburg: Meiner
STACHOWIAK, Herbert (Hrg.) (1993): Pragmatik. Handbuch pragmatischen Denkens. Band IV Sprachphilosophie, Sprachpragmatik und formative Pragmatik. Hamburg: Meiner
STACHOWIAK, Herbert (Hrg.) (1995): Pragmatik. Handbuch pragmatischen Denkens. Band V Pragmatische Tendenzen in der Wissenschaftstheorie. Hamburg: Meiner
STADLER, Friedrich (1997): Studien zum Wiener Kreis. Ursprung, Entwicklung und Wirkung des Logischen Empirismus im Kontext. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp
VOSSENKUHL, Wilhelm (Hrg.) (1992): Von Wittgenstein Lernen. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag
VOSSENKUHL, Wilhelm (1995): Ludwig Wittgenstein. München: Beck
WATZLAWICK, Paul (1988): Münchhausens Zopf oder: Psychotherapie und »Wirklichkeit«. Aufsätze und Vorträge über menschliche Probleme in systemisch-konstruktivistischer Sicht. Bern: Huber
I furthermore recommend to register at/subscribe the following journals
or at least to get hold of certain volumes (this is also a very insufficient
Acta Philosophica Fennica
Grazer Philosophische Studien
S - European Journal for Semiotic Studies
For an overview of the stock of books currently held at the WAB
as available for scholars and visitors (primarily to read there, but permission
to take books outside the archive can be granted by Alois PICHLER via personal
contact) see the internal list "wabbooks".--
VI. EPILOGUE: What I Liked and What I Did Not Like
Let me finish this report with some throughout personal remarks: Generally speaking, I liked myself a lot in Norway. I enjoyed this summer, despite the loads of work, just as I had enjoyed summer 1998 (in Bergen) and summer 1999 (in Oslo). In the same general manner of talking, I herewith announce my wish to have an opportunity to come back.
What worked quite well was the academic support
and research infrastructure provided to us guest researchers at the Wittgenstein
Archives (WAB). Here Alois PICHLER (project manager) and Eldbjørg
GUNNARSON (project secretary) deserve a special acknowledgement for their
professional function and personal engagement, but I also want to mention
at least Simo SÄÄTELÄ and Ralph JEWELL for our highly philosophical
and sometimes funny lunch-times. It was (again) good to get to know with
all these people that came as visitors or colleagues to the WAB
(as reported above), and I hope to be able to hold further contact with
at least some of them. A lot of what I reported on above was something
I liked and was pretty fond of, so I don't want to repeat this here. The
reasons and factors why I had a good and intellectually fruitful time
by any measure anything critical I could bring forth.
Besides my academic work, my social life was enriched by international contacts to students while I was living in Fantoft Studentby. Although I am a rather "old" student (whose subject necessarily involves a life-long studying), I enjoyed myself there most of the time, found a variety of international contacts to young students from all over the world, met a lot of new people and even colleagues (like Javi WEGENER). It was a good choice to live a bit outside the city instead of choosing the offered place near the research site (and it was cheaper, too). Taking the bike almost every day a stretch of all together around 12 km to and fro was a necessary and nice sportive exercise making up for all the back-breaking conceptual analysis a serious philosopher has to undergo (and although I do not unguardedly see myself as an analytic philosopher, I certainly sign up to this understanding of philosophical labour).
Since I have to some extent grown into Norwegian habits, some of them (like mountain walking) related to my Austrian background, I can imagine quite well to return to this kingdom or even to live here for some years.
What I did not like was the rather bad
equipment in my office, presumably due to lack of money: A restricted access
to phone, a bad screen which noticeably damaged my already bad sight (philosophers
do read a lot, on screen, in books and manuscripts, especially
if working in an archive), a rather bad keyboard (philosophers, or at least
I, do write a lot), and that I even had to pay for my printouts and copies.
By the way, the window in my office could not be closed properly, and the
electric light was rather dim and bad, although it burnt sometimes over
a fortnight in a waste of energy that cannot make up for the (neon) bulbs'
bad performance. I can't imagine that sharing a toilet with the women having
offices at my floor complies with the Norwegian Law, not to mention the
lack of space and free air in such little chambers we all here have to
be content with. All these failures must not be blamed on
the WAB or the staff, but
only on the notorious lack of sufficient funding.
In addition to that I found Norwegian bureaucracy sometimes slow and often strange in its competence, and that shall purport that whenever I thought that the administration would just work according to its duties and according to what it is supposed to do, it did not do so, not in the slightest sense, yet whenever I undertook steps, engaging myself on my own costs and spending my time in contacting people or trying to find the people in charge, I eventually always encountered either some source of information by accident or ran into some willing and nice person who proved to be finally helpful, although sometimes these people were not those who were actually responsible. In this respect I am indebted to my contact person Per Magnus KOMMANDANTVOLD at Norges Forskningsåd, the Norwegian institution which provided the funds for my sojourn and grandly paid my scholarship (including an extra amount for participating at a conference, cf. sup.), but also to Bjørn Fredrik BRÅTEN (Department of Philosophy at UiB). I secretly trace these failures to a deep rooted lack of responsibility, but since the concept of "national mentality" is not trustworthy at all, I am most likely wrong in my attempt of an explanation.
Deplorably scarce was information about the Norwegian taxation system, about conditions of employment or the Norwegian social insurance system to which I belonged (it might consist of rumours only). Yet I am grateful that I got access to some social insurance system at all, thanks to the help of the aforementioned Per Magnus KOMMANDANTVOLD. Obviously academic researchers are believed to live eternal lives, unbothered by any illness or disease, and that they work somtimes 12 hours a day and an extra hour reading at night not for the sake of humanity but out of pure fun and even voluntarily; although I had and still have a lot of fun when doing philosophical work, I am far from enjoying an eternal life, and despite my body's good shape, my body is in principle not free from harm, agony, colds, infections, and other quite common illnesses, and as far as I know and as far as it is knowable at all, I enjoy no eternal or non invulnerable life.
A further detrimental point was that the process of decision making was partly intransparent, partly completely overregulated, so that one easily got the impression that people spend more effort on working out regulations than on doing their real jobs. Some, if not many of these annoying characteristics can also be found in Austria, the country I come from, and my disappointment might stem from my partly right, partly wrong, partly just unfitting expectation that it would be different and better abroad.
Why I nevertheless want to return can be easily explained: I
found a teaching job here with autumn 2002 (cf. sup.),
and like the nature as well as the people. I have friends among the Norwegians,
won new acquaintances, and not only within the academic milieu. I enjoyed
doing research here, and I accomplished a lot of work, in some respect
more than I reckoned with.--
(1) a "Vorstellung" about (2) "Darstellungen" of (3) "Vorstellungen".
The first occurrence of the term "Vorstellung" (1) makes the following
scientific, it is a methodological idea, whereas the occurrence
at place (3) of the term "Vorstellung" like the occurrence at spot (2)
of the term "Darstellung" denote HERTZ's term "Bild", i.e. "picture"
or "image". The occurrence (1) of "Vorstellung" can be translated as "idea",
it concerns the "new form" in which HERTZ wants to give the basics of Mechanics,
so he has an idea about a method concerning the new form of representation
("Darlegung"), whereas the second occurrence (i.e. spot (3)) of
the term "Vorstellung" should not be translated as idea (as already JANIK
& TOULMIN 1973: 139 noticed, in critique of Ernst MACH; but nevertheless
JANIK 1994/95 and again JANIK 1999 concedes that MACH is nearer to HERTZ
than he originally thought, and he furthermore notices resemblances of
HERTZ to PEIRCE which I also see, cf. op. non publ. cit. inf.).
With this I hope to have settled a discussion which stimulated a lot of philosophical head busting. In reading HERTZ we might feel tempted by WITTGENSTEINian philosophy to attribute WITTGENSTEIN the HERTZian usage of the nouns "Vorstellung" and "Darstellung" and "Bild", yet this is wrong. HERTZ understanding of the term "Bild" is wider than WITTGENSTEIN's, and although WITTGENSTEIN was influenced by HERTZ, their terminologies differ. For WITTGENSTEIN "Bild" means "Darstellung" (as JANIK and TOULMIN have it), for HERTZ it can mean both (and here I depart from JANIK & TOULMIN 1973). (back)-
created by G.G. on April 22nd 2002
last update by G.G. on Sept. 12th 2002