Report on the Project

Towards a Pragmatic Theory of Meaning and Emotions

by Dr. Gerhard GELBMANN

at the

Wittgenstein Archives (WAB) at the University of Bergen (UiB) /
Wittgensteinarkivet ved Universitetet i Bergen

from mid March 2002 until mid September 2002

funded by

Norges Forskningsåd / The Research Council of Norway


I. Application: The Project's Idea
II. Activities During Project
III. Works Read
IV. Work Given
V. Works Recommended For Purchase
VI. Epilogue: What I Liked and What I Did Not Like

last update



I am familiar with the Wittgenstein Archives at the University of Bergen (WAB) from my sojourns as a guest-researcher in autumn 1997 and summer 1998 when I was working on my Dr.phil.-thesis.1 My last research project at the University of Vienna was placed within the frame of the Pragmatic Theory of Communication,2 dealing with Philosophical Foundations of Communication.3 The Pragmatic Theory of Communication itself has noteworthy roots in Ludwig WITTGENSTEIN's "pragmatic turn" as well as in certain concepts of his philosophy, developed in his outstanding "Tractatus logico-philosophicus", furthermore in the famous, but unfinished (and unedited) "Big Typescript",4 in his "Philosophische Untersuchungen" and "Bemerkungen über die Grundlagen der Mathematik", yet perhaps also in the so-called "Bemerkungen über die Philosophie der Psychologie" and "Letzte Schriften über die Philosophie der Psychologie".

So I am interested in doing research on historical and systematic connections of this theory to WITTGENSTEIN's Philosophy in two main fields:

  • a Pragmatic Theory of Meaning
  • a Pragmatic Theory of Emotions
  • Both areas are partly unanswered, yet perhaps treatable by developing and furthering the semiotic notions contained in WITTGENSTEIN's thinking.

    With 1. I intend to go beyond any so-called statement-view of semantic information. Especially assumptions of meaning as such shall be questioned as being sufficient for an analysis of communication.5 WITTGENSTEIN's philosophy shows that natural languages, since they are rooted in a practice and hence in concrete social systems, require a pragmatic level of theorising about how meaning is interpersonally construed. Therefore it is important to find out where and how semiotic subjectivity in different modes of sign-use comes into consideration. Tracing such notions in WITTGENSTEIN's writings would be an important step. Especially his later writings in the area of Philosophy of Psychology shall be investigated, along with the relevant interpretations and successors.6

    With 2. I feel inclined to look how far I can take my hypothesis that in the Pragmatic Theory of Communication emotions can be explained as intrapersonally produced. I hope to find supportive thoughts among WITTGENSTEIN's many remarks as well as among his numerous commentaries. These thoughts arose when I was at the International Summer School in Oslo 1999 where I delivered a semester-paper on Arne NÆSS' "Livsfilosofi".7

    For both concerns I know the WAB to be the right place. It is an institution that in the last years more and more has turned into an outstanding research site specialised on WITTGENSTEIN. Not only can one find the relevant literature there; texts and any findings there are always directly comparable to the sources and their transcriptions into the electronic edition. Besides these resources it is the intellectual surroundings I am already familiar with that support my wish.

    I hope that I can work on these complex of themes again at the WAB, because there I would have exhaustive access to all that I need to complete my task: the original materials or the copies respectively, the electronic edition as a valuable tool, collections of published and unpublished texts, the scholars from the WAB and from all over the world, the tradition of stimulating debates.

    Making WITTGENSTEIN fruitful for concepts of an analysis of communication is the kernel of my striving. Since Bergen has become the European centre for studying WITTGENSTEIN, it suggests itself to return once more to the WAB as the recognised institution, along well-established connections between the Department of Philosophy at the University of Vienna and the WAB. With the background of splendid experiences from my former times at the WAB and not without a sound knowledge of Norwegian language and culture I would estimate to have another chance to work there.--

    delivered (in a slightly different English and Norwegian version) in about autumn 2000;
    the project and its funding were approved in spring 2001
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    I arrived at the WAB in mid-March 2002 and started my work with reading various papers, books, articles, but soon also by participating in informal and later on formal discussions. Among my partners in such philosophical conversations, mostly during March and April, but partly also until the end of my sojourn, were (in a reconstructed chronological order) Alois PICHLER (UiB), Simo SÄÄTELÄ (UiB), Ralph JEWELL (UiB), Aleksander MOTTURI (Åbo Akademi), Michael LUNTLEY (University of Warwick), Harald JOHANNESSEN (UiB), Kevin M. CAHILL (UiB), Knut ÅGOTNES (UiB), Daniel APOLLON (HIT Centre and UiB), and Richard Arnljot SØRLI (UiB); and on a more private basis I had frequent philosophical contact with Javier Garcia WEGENER (Universidad de Oviedo), Petra HEDBERG (UiB) and some conversations with Christopher Michael SPERBERG-McQUEEN (HIT Centre and MIT). Later on Edmund RUNGGALDIER (University of Innsbruck) joined in for a couple of days in May and Edward VANHOUTTE (CTB - Centrum voor Teksteditie en Bronnenstudie, Gent), Monika SEEKIRCHER (University of Innsbruck, Brenner-Archiv), Allan JANIK (University of Innsbruck, Brenner-Archiv) and Xabier INSAUSTI (University of San Sebastian) in June. In August came Ludovic SOUTIF (Université Paris 1 - Panthéon Sorbonne) and Anat BILETZKI (University of Tel-Aviv), both among the scholarly most interesting people I have ever met. (Less important and less frequent partners in philosophical conversations are left unmentioned.)

    The themes we entered in always also concerned Ludwig WITTGENSTEIN, but touched as well authors like Sir Joshuah REYNOLDS, Frank Plumpton RAMSEY, Richard Bevan BRAITHWAITE, Sir Karl R. POPPER, Jürgen HABERMAS, Bertrand RUSSELL, Georg Henrik von WRIGHT, Jaakko HINTIKKA, Francis BACON, Cora DIAMOND, Rush RHEES, Gottlob FREGE, Elizabeth ANSCOMBE, Paul WATZLAWICK, Alfred AYER, Gregory BATESON, and classics like ARISTOTLE, PLATO, FICHTE, THOMAS AQUINAS, besides many others thinkers, commentors on WITTGENSTEIN, and philosophers.

    I attended, of course, the lectures given by Michael LUNTLEY ("Wittgenstein: the conditions for the possibility of judgement") on four occasions in April 2002. In May 2002 Aleksander MOTTURI ("Wittgenstein, the Jew and Philosophical Engagement") and Edmund RUNGGALDIER ("The Making of Individuals and Identity: Against Conventionalism") were lecturing, both being discussed even after their leave. I also went to lectures at Det samfunnsvitenskapelige fakultet (SVF) given by Nancy FRASER ("Distorted Beyond all Recognition: A Rejoinder to Axel Honneth") and a certain Eli ZARETSKY ("September Eleventh and the Problem of Ontological Security", whose ajoining discussion was one of the worst in regard to the lecturer's ability of answering the questions I have ever been to) towards the end of May 2002. In June I visited the first part of the lectures of Xabier INSAUSTI ("Philosophie und Kultur. Spanien und Europa" in German).

    Until the end of April 2002 I had finished a paper which I wrote under the impression of Alois PICHLER's doctoral dissertation, but had also worked on other publications, also under the influence of what I previously had thought and gathered at the WAB (in my sojourns of 1997 and 1998), linked to my recent work at home about the Pragmatologic Model Theory of Herbert STACHOWIAK.8 This paper on PICHLER is written in German and is titled "Skript, Text, Werk, Album".9 It is published in a virtual and open digital archive of e-texts "Sammelpunkt. Elektronisch archivierte Theorie" (maintained by Herbert HRACHOVEC, University of Vienna) as well as in the form of a personal web-site of mine (I might add it to a collection of relevant essays and edit it within a book). It concerns the philological as well as hermeneutical complexity of dealing with WITTGENSTEIN's Nachlass and tries to define PICHLER's notions "script", "text", "work", "album" (to use a rough English translation) in terms of the aforementioned Pragmatologic Model Theory.

    Already towards the end of April 2002 local students (hovedfag filosofi) approached me, if I would set up an informal seminar or a reading-circle for casual round-table meetings of hovedfagstudenter in philosophy, just to exchange experiences, probably also to further each other's work. Our constitutional meeting was at the WAB on Friday, 26th April at 11 a.m.10 We decided to call it "philosophy round table" and had all in all eight meetings from May 2nd until June 21st, 2002 (we ended with the declared common interest in again taking up these casual and liberal meetings with August 2002). The meetings used to set off with discussing certain passages in WITTGENSTEIN's writings, whose selection were commonly agreed upon in the foregoing meeting, and soon the discussions spread out, arriving at important questions such as "What does 'Grammar' mean" or which role does "ordinary language" play, always referring to WITTGENSTEIN's philosophy. I also asked students to present their own ideas about their work by giving short talks, and I saw it as a good occasion for personal as well as academic exchange, where my role was situated somewhere between an advisory senior member and an equal participant who tried to let the table not become too square.

    With mid May 2002 I started giving a serious of lectures circling around or related to the theme "Semiotic Subjectivity".11 I was advised to start with the lecture dealing with HINTIKKA's concept of Pragmatics and with LUNTLEY's approach in his lectures (cf. sup.), since the other lectures would either be too technical or refer to still unpublished work (I would have preferred a different order, starting with what now is lecture #2). At the beginning of June I lectured within the same main theme on a more technical subject, the pragmatologic Theory of models by Herbert STACHOWIAK (on which I had also worked during the last 15 months at least).

    In mid May 2002 I was invited to participate in the work of the editorial board of the open digital archive of e-texts "Sammelpunkt. Elektronisch archivierte Theorie" (cf. sup.), and I immediately took up this new challenge by trying to attract contributions within guest-researches at the WAB and among the staff and students at the Department of Philosophy at UiB. I discussed these matters with Herbert HRACHOVEC (University of Vienna) in mid-June during a short sojourn in Vienna (cf. inf.).

    At the same time I was also asked to contribute to the international project "Tracing Wittgenstein" (coordination: Herbert HRACHOVEC, University of Vienna; Dieter KÖHLER, University of Karlsruhe; Primary Sources: Alois PICHLER, UiB) by co-commenting WITTGENSTEIN's Nachlass-Manuscript MS 115, which I gradually took up by trying to concentrate on points which were of particular interest for my current project at the WAB.

    From June 7th until June 10th 2002 I could take part in the "Wittgenstein seminar at Tørvis Hotel, Marifjøra in Luster. Rules and expressions: The grammar of use and the expressiveness of meaning in Wittgenstein's late philosophy" (link dates from 11th June 2002, might soon expire) thanks to some extra funding I got from the NFR. This conference was co-organised by the Department of Philosophy at the University of Bergen, the Wittgenstein Archives at UiB, the Collège International de Philosophie, Paris, and the Centre de cooperation franco-norvégien en sciences socials et humaines, MSH, Paris. Antonia SOULEZ and Arild UTAKER were responsible for this nicely set meeting and its programme, Alois PICHLER built up the informative web-site (loc. cit.).
    In restricting myself to the most relevant events, I have to mention the contributions of Allan JANIK ("Impure reason vindicated", a masterly paper of profound historical knowledge, yet partly read to fast for a non-native speaker), Alois PICHLER ("A polyphonic reading of PI: §§156-178", well presented but with an understanding of what commonly is taken as "behaviourism" which is quite different from mine), Simo SÄÄTELÄ ("'Eine Einstellung zur Seele' and the concept of a person", a fine account of the notion of "attitude" in WITTGENSTEIN's writing, partly akin to what I call "socio-semiotic subjects"), and Kevin M. CAHILL ("What Kripke missed: The antinomical structure of the remarks on rule-following", a clever study which induced fruitful discussions and was partly too dense to be captured at once), among others. Interestingly enough, as already at the aforementioned occasions (lectures, seminars), the theme of "aspect" was of great significance; the contributions of Antonia SOULEZ ("Writing 'in the sense of the whole' (im Sinne des Ganzen): aspects and resonances") and of Jean-Philippe NARBOUX ("Imagination, expressiveness and the problem of aspects") have to be mentioned.
    It was an estimated occasion for me to meet Allan JANIK for the first time in my life, and the whole setting gave room to many discussions surrounding the theme, philosophy, family and life of Ludwig WITTGENSTEIN. That a local and son of a late acquaintance of WITTGENSTEIN, Harald VATNE from Skjolden, guided us to the very place where the remaining foundations of WITTGENSTEIN's cabin can be inspected, was another experience worth remembering; Harald VATNE also had some stories about WITTGENSTEIN, his conduct and relationships towards his Norwegian neighbours at this site, and all this gave a vivid impression.
    A practical side of some rule-following was displayed in some friendly football-matches at the gorgeous Scandinavian summer evenings (on all three evenings, with Simo, Alois, Jean-Phillippe and me as permanent participants, but once also Arild, Ralph and Knut took part, all three of them in valueable positions and with great effort). The density of such a form of encountering does not allow for a full account, but I profited highly in various directions, not at least insofar as I learned to know highly ranking scientists from a personal and almost familiar point of view.
    My personal contribution to this conference was originally planned as a paper (something like "Grammar and Pragmatics"), but since I got no lecture time and was not scheduled, I did not write it. My thoughts on this subject in its particular reference to WITTGENSTEIN can be extracted from GELBMANN 2000, GELBMANN 2001 (op. cit. inf.) and others, hitherto unpublished notes and writings and might be explicated later on more thoroughly and for easier access (yet I want to draw the reader's attention to my term "social ontology" in my written lectures given here, cf. inf., stemming from my contributions to the "philosophy round table").

    From the June 13th until June 19th 2002 I spent a couple of days at home in Austria to meet my professor Herbert HRACHOVEC in Vienna:12 I had to talk with him personally about formal and technical matters regarding the electronic Archive "Sammelpunkt" (cf. sup.) and the project "Tracing Wittgenstein" (cf. sup.). I furthermore had to meet my publisher, Verlag Peter Lang, Filiale Wien, and I brought from home and took home some material (mostly books and notes). Until beginning of the new semester in Bergen, I spent all the working days (except reported absences) and often even weekends at my research site or at least in Bergen (since I like to read in cafés or outside in sun-shine, I have to add this reservation; but even if I was sitting at some bench in the wood of the near-by hill called Fløyen, I was reading philosophy, and if I was walking under these marvellous trees, my mind wrestled with philosophical questions, as there are no holidays from philosophy). Office neighbours (like Cecilie T. CARLSEN) or neighbours and friends in my student hostel were quite astonished about the length of my working day ("Er du ennå her?" or "Var du her hele tiden?" were frequent questions).-

    On June 20th I attended two lectures at AKSIS / HIT Centre (the embracing institutional construction of my hosting institute). Kjersti Børnestad BERG gave a presentation of her developing master-thesis ("A Computational Model for MLCD") who with the help of Paul MEURER (from the HIT Centre) works with a special method for text-encoding programming called "GODDAG" by making applicative use of the expertise of C. M. SPERBERG-McQUEEN (HIT Centre and MIT) and Claus HUITFELDT (HIT Centre). Afterwards Claus HUITFELDT lectured on the semantics of Mark-Up-Languages and their representation ("Skeletons in the Closet: Saying What Markup Means"). The whole morning was filled with rather technical and for my part difficult discussions on these subjects which on a superficial estimation seem to imply not much philosophical import. Yet I am personally struck by the acquaintance these themes have with my own attempts in Pragmatologic Model Theory (cf. inf.) and Semiotics. It is moreover worth mentioning that the problems of text-encoding lie at the very bottom of what the Wittgenstein Archives (WAB) meant and depicted during the time of transcribing WITTGENSTEIN's Nachlass for the Bergen Electronic Edition (BEE)!13

    In the last third of June 2002 I started with some working through WITTGENSTEIN's MS 115 and HRACHOVEC' commentary on it,14 partly by adding my own comment into the appropriate file (construed by HRACHOVEC) of the APE programme (devised by Dieter KÖHLER, and for the time being still a beta-version under testing and improvement). This intelligent software allows not only to use the BEE in combination of producing a commentary to parts of the Nachlass, it also is supposed to support common work on the same commentary, shared on-line by several persons. This work provides also some further connections to my current project insofar MS 115 contains significant thoughts of WITTGENSTEIN about the expression of a feeling as an artificial means of communication ("Äußerung eines Gefühls als ein künstliches Verständigungsmittel").
    The main obstacle from May onwards had been to install the necessary software and to get the programme running. Unfortunately until the end of my sojourn not much was accomplished in this respect on my research site, yet I personally worked on a co-comment of MS 115 (starting from HRACHOVEC' remarks), but could not access the file it was saved in from around end of June 2002 onwards due to changes in the software-updates I could not follow, and due to the lack of help I was promised but did not receive. I have hopes that a participation in this project is still possible, from Vienna or some other place. On the other hand, this project is still under development, and it undergoes a kind of experimental stage, so in this sense my contribution was not in vain, although lost.

    With July 2002 my book Observations on Transactions. A Discussion of Watzlawick's Second Axiom. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang came out, as already announced (cf. inf.). If somebody, preferably a reputed scholar, wants to review it in a philosophical or other appropriate scientific journal, the editor of the going to be publisher of this review shall contact
    Peter Lang GmbH
    Europäischer Verlag der Wissenschaften
    Eschborner Landstrasse 42-50,
    D-60489 Frankfurt am Main

    in order to obtain a copy of my book for the reviewer.

    At the beginning of July 2002 my application as a "seminarleder" for the examen philosophicum (haustsemester 2002) at UiB was positively accepted, so I will be teaching Philosophy of Science for students at Det matematisk-naturvitenskapelige fakultet (vitenskapsfilosofi for realistene) in autumn 2002.

    The July 2002 I spent mostly with reading (cf. inf.); I also did some minor work in correcting, updating and overworking my GELBMANN 200015 for a possible publication within the next two years and of my recently published GELBMANN 200216 in case a second edition will then have been become desirable.

    Towards the end of July I allowed myself to go on a trip to Northern Norway (to the area of Bodø and Fauske), enjoying a train-trip from the 19th July to the 30th July through great and impressive landscapes and doing some mountain walking and hiking (near and partly on top of some of the Sandvasstindane). I also had a glance at Trondheim and put a brief visit to old friends who moved to Halden, where I looked at some spectacular historical monuments (Brekke Sluser, Fredriksten festning). My mastering of the Norwegian language proved to be helpful in furthering my knowledge about the decisive traits that formed the Norwegian national character, the mentality and culture of Norway, a country which alone for its nature and people is amiable and worth loving. This did not keep me from reading, though. One may not say that I ever regretted coming to Norway, especially in summer, and I personally would prefer my research institution, the WAB, to be rather situated in Tromsø than in rainy Bergen ...

    With August 2002 two new guest researches arrived who deserve exlusive mentioning (cf. sup.), Ludovic SOUTIF (Université Paris 1 - Panthéon Sorbonne) and Anat BILETZKI (University of Tel-Aviv). We all three soon got involved, partly together with the most agitated and busy Alois PICHLER, in discussions i.a. on HINTIKKA's theory of WITTGENSTEIN's dyslexia, on the methodological continuity of the role of Heinrich Rudolf HERTZ' for WITTGENSTEIN, on the notion of "text" and related subjects, but also on "insight", "decision", "construction" and "infinity" in WITTGENSTEIN's Philosophy of Mathematics and on the "gates", as Anat calls it, we have to access WITTGENSTEIN's relation to religion. One main theme for me was JANIK & TOULMIN 1973, JANIK 1994/95 and JANIK 1999 on their understanding of Heinrich R. HERTZ, from which set off a debate about the German terms (and their translations into English) of "Bild", "Vorstellung" and "Darstellung", mainly in WITTGENSTEIN's "Tractatus" as well as in HERTZ's "Prinzipien der Mechanik".17

    In August 2002 I chiefly worked on reading RUSSELL and HERTZ, on writing on STACHOWIAK's Theory of Modelling and its relation to HERTZ's thinking for a book I am still labouring on,18 and I went on overworking my long doctoral dissertation,19 especially by taking care of new findings in WITTGENSTEIN and in secondary literature, but also of RUSSELL's papers on the Logical Theory of Types, on Knowledge and other themes (both these my books are still unfinished, but earlier versions of some main thoughts have already been published). These works deal with the notion of "Pragmatic Theory", and the second book has a tighter connection to the pragmatic function of feelings in communication (cf. also GELBMANN 2002), whereas the first book tries to envisage the problem of theorising about "meaning" as a reduction of non-statement-view-Theories to statement-view-theories.

    Towards the end of August 2002 Ludovic SOUTIF gave a lecture ("Inside and Outside Mathematics: The Limits of Wittgenstein's Constructivism") which led to ideas of a common paper "On Attitudes in Philosophy of Mathematics" (working title) which in August and September was still under discussion and will be pursued in the comming months. Anat BILETZKI lectured on "Wittgenstein and Religion", a theme which we had entered already in our conversations at lunch (that time among Anat and Alexander BILETZKI, Ludovic SOUTIF, Ralph JEWELL, Alois PICHLER, and me), and on the same day (actually, before she lectured) I presented my book Observations on Transactions. A Discussion of Watzlawick's Second Axiom by giving a short talk within my series of lectures, this time on "Persons as Socio-Semiotic Subjects. Semiotic Subjectivity III". The discussion of my talk brought about i.a. SOUTIF's comment that my (or WATZLAWICK et al.'s) usage of the term "transaction" is in a similar way via analogiae attributionalis (my coining) than WITTGENSTEIN's (in "Philosophische Grammatik" I, III, §44, and i.a. in "Big Typescript" TS 213: 58). Another point was that I come from a completely different philosophical background (PICHLER, in referring to my correction of WATZLAWICK et al.'s terms of "metacommunication" and "level" with "metainformation" or "transaction" and "aspect", saw me in a late whirl of the current of logical positivism; I myself would see me more as belonging to a later form of radical objective social constructivism). I found BILETZKI's questions for clarification of terms (like "metacommunication", "metainformation", "transaction", "semantic") helpful, and even though they were combined with the remark that she does not know any of the authors I am quoting, I did not comprehend her as a profound critic or hostile to my approach. I went too far astray in attributing WITTGENSTEIN the avoidance of the term "ordinary language" in my critique of a concept of "ordinary communication", and I owe Ludovic SOUTIF acknowledgement for having drawn my attention to the "Blue Book" in this matter (so I had to add corrections, cf. loc. cit.). Nevertheless I stick to my criticism, which overtly and mostly was turned against Jürgen HABERMAS (and about this point I also discussed with a colleague in teaching at the Department of Philosophy, UiB, Petra HEDBERG, via e-mail). I hope to find time to encounter BILETZKI's argument that in my criticism of HABERMAS I also "have an ideology" (I am planning to do that via a thorough e-mail or a letter). Moreover I would like to use this future opportunity for a comment on her remarks, made within our intensive discussion, viz. that in the example of the tensions between Israeli and Palestinians the conflict lies not so much in the structure of their mutual assumptions since "they have no assumptions about each other" (being said with hindsight to BILETZKI's engagement in an Israeli Human Rights Movement called B'Tselem, cf. inf.). My opinion is not backed up by such experiences as she must have, but nevertheless I think she is wrong.

    At the end of August 2002 I went to a talk on Human Rights (on the background of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict) and B'Tselem given by Anat BILETZKI at the Raftohuset in Bergen. I found this, as a philosopher with ethical engagement and aware of the current political situation in that region as well as this situation's connection to the current politics of and in the USA, most interesting, so I attended her lecture on the evening of 2nd of Sept. 2002 and also announced it via e-mail, by attracting some students and friends. Towards beginning of September 2002 the "philosophy round table" was taken up again, on a more self-organising basis with a first autumn meeting on Sept. 4th 2002 in a tiny group (the last meeting I am to attend). On Sept. 6th 2002, when time was already becoming short, Daniel APOLLON (HIT Centre and UiB) approached me with a quite unexpected idea, viz. that I am invited to one of his seminars to talk about philosophical impact on "humanistisk informatikk" and lead a discussion for two lessons on Sept. 11th 2002. The theme (in Norwegian / my translation into English) was "Deltaker og tilskuer / participants and spectators", and partly drew on a WITTGENSTEINian view on the digital world and on my recently published book (cf. inf.).

    On request of Alois PICHLER and Eldbjørg GUNNARSON, I led a group of guest researches at Marie Curie Training Sites and Research Infrastructures and respective hosts and interested students at UiB up the "byfjellene" (the mountains near the city), setting off from Fløyen to go up the Rundemanen and over the Vidda to Ulriken, on Sunday, 9th of Sept. 2002. People from quite different academic as well as cultural backgrounds liked the tour. To my complete astonishment I enthusiastically was thanked for something which I just did out of fun. We were lucky with the weather, though ...

    Summing up I have to state that the first aim of my project, viz. undertaking steps towards a Pragmatic Theory of Meaning, can mainly be found in the book I am still writing on, i.e. GELBMANN 2003, besides the parts already contained in GELBMANN 2000 or in other articles (cf. my publication list). The second goal, viz. steps towards a Pragmatic Theory of Emotions, has only been reached partly and not to my complete satisfaction, cf. GELBMANN 2002. Further work in this direction might follow. As stated in my project proposal (cf. sup.), both aspects of my research interest remain within the frame of the Pragmatic Theory of Communication. WITTGENSTEIN is in both directions not necessarily the clearest thinker, nevertheless one of the first entering these fields.

    Let me finish with stating a commitment to the University of Bergen as hopefully an institution I can on professional academic basis as well as in regards of philosophical research and teaching keep in contact with during the coming decades, even besides of any past or future contacts with the WAB, contacts I currently neither regret nor intend to avoid. So let me express my intend to attempt to attract funds for another research sojourn here.--

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    GELBMANN, Gerhard: "Skript, Text, Werk, Album. Zu Alois Pichlers Umgang mit Wittgensteins Schreiben", electronic document:, also available at the open digital archive of e-texts "Sammelpunkt. Elektronisch archivierte Theorie" (last update: May 2002)


    GELBMANN, Gerhard (2002): Observations on Transaction. A Discussion of Watzlawick’s Second Axiom. European University Studies: Ser. 20, Philosophy, Vol.645. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang

    Lectures (delivered in speech and as essays):

    GELBMANN, Gerhard: "Pragmatics and the Conceptual Constitutivity of the Social (contra Hintikka and Luntley). Semiotic Subjectivity I", May 14th, 2002, seminarrom 373 at Filosofisk institutt ved UiB; background paper cf.:, also available at the open digital archive of e-texts "Sammelpunkt. Elektronisch archivierte Theorie" (last update: May 2002)
    GELBMANN, Gerhard: "An Outline of Pragmatologic Model-Theory (sec. Stachowiak). Semiotic Subjectivity II", June 3rd, 2002, Lunch room at the HIT Centre; paper cf.:, also available at the open digital archive of e-texts "Sammelpunkt. Elektronisch archivierte Theorie" (last update: June 2002)
    GELBMANN, Gerhard: "Persons as Socio-Semiotic Subjects. Semiotic Subjectivity III. Presentation of Observations on Transaction", August 30th, 2002, Lunch room 15.00-16.30, at the HIT Centre; handout cf.:, also available at the open digital archive of e-texts "Sammelpunkt. Elektronisch archivierte Theorie" (last update: September 2002)


    philosophy round table
    Deltaker og tilskuer / participants and spectators (Hovedfagseminar Seksjon for Humanistisk Informatikk, UiB, Daniel APOLLON)

    In other respects and in later works, I might benefit from my experiences in a yet unpredictable way.--

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    The following bibliography is kept short on purpose; it is by no means complete (and does not consider articles or papers). It only contains my suggestions for literature that should be bought and made available at the WAB, partly because I lacked these books, partly because I thought it would be recommendable for other researchers to have them. This includes, of course, that sufficient financial means are provided for these necessary investments, money that obviously lack at the moment.
    DRURY, Maurice O'Connor (1973, 1996): The Danger of Words and writings on Wittgenstein. London: Routledge & Kegan; Bristol: Thoemmes

    FANN, K. T. (1969): Wittgenstein's Conception of Philosophy. Oxford: Blackwell

    FURUTA, Hirokiyo (1994, 1996): Wittgenstein und Heidegger. "Sinn" und "Logik" in der Tradition der analytischen Philosophie. Epistemata, Würzburger wissenschaftliche Schriften, Reihe Philosophie. Würzburg: Königshausen

    GEHLHAAR, Sabine S. (Hrg.) (2000): Ludwig Wittgenstein. Dartford: Junghans

    HACKER, Peter Michael Stephan (1972*, 1986, 1997): Insight and Illusion: Themes in the Philosophy of Wittgenstein. Bristol: Thoemmes Press21

    STACHOWIAK, Herbert (1955): Geschichte der Axiomatik: Die Entwicklung der Axiomatik von den Anfängen deduktiven Denkens bis zur Ausbildung des klassisch-griechischen Wissenschaftstypus durch Aristoteles. Dissertation, Freie Universität Berlin

    STACHOWIAK, Herbert (1965, 1969): Denken und Erkennen im kybernetischen Modell. Wien: Springer

    STACHOWIAK, Herbert (1973): Allgemeine Modelltheorie. Wien: Springer

    STACHOWIAK, Herbert (Hrg.) (1983): Modelle  –  Konstruktion der Wirklichkeit. München: Fink

    STACHOWIAK, Herbert (Hrg.) (1987): Pragmatik. Handbuch pragmatischen Denkens. Band II Der Aufstieg pragmatischen Denkens im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. Hamburg: Meiner

    STACHOWIAK, Herbert (Hrg.) (1989): Pragmatik. Handbuch pragmatischen Denkens. Band III Allgemeine philosophische Pragmatik. Hamburg: Meiner

    STACHOWIAK, Herbert (Hrg.) (1993): Pragmatik. Handbuch pragmatischen Denkens. Band IV Sprachphilosophie, Sprachpragmatik und formative Pragmatik. Hamburg: Meiner

    STACHOWIAK, Herbert (Hrg.) (1995): Pragmatik. Handbuch pragmatischen Denkens. Band V Pragmatische Tendenzen in der Wissenschaftstheorie. Hamburg: Meiner

    STADLER, Friedrich (1997): Studien zum Wiener Kreis. Ursprung, Entwicklung und Wirkung des Logischen Empirismus im Kontext. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp

    VOSSENKUHL, Wilhelm (Hrg.) (1992): Von Wittgenstein Lernen. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag

    VOSSENKUHL, Wilhelm (1995): Ludwig Wittgenstein. München: Beck

    WATZLAWICK, Paul (1988): Münchhausens Zopf oder: Psychotherapie und »Wirklichkeit«. Aufsätze und Vorträge über menschliche Probleme in systemisch-konstruktivistischer Sicht. Bern: Huber

    I furthermore recommend to register at/subscribe the following journals or at least to get hold of certain volumes (this is also a very insufficient list):22

    Acta Philosophica Fennica

    Grazer Philosophische Studien

    Semiotische Berichte

    S - European Journal for Semiotic Studies

    For an overview of the stock of books currently held at the WAB as available for scholars and visitors (primarily to read there, but permission to take books outside the archive can be granted by Alois PICHLER via personal contact) see the internal list "wabbooks".--

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    VI. EPILOGUE: What I Liked and What I Did Not Like

    Let me finish this report with some throughout personal remarks: Generally speaking, I liked myself a lot in Norway. I enjoyed this summer, despite the loads of work, just as I had enjoyed summer 1998 (in Bergen) and summer 1999 (in Oslo). In the same general manner of talking, I herewith announce my wish to have an opportunity to come back.

    What worked quite well was the academic support and research infrastructure provided to us guest researchers at the Wittgenstein Archives (WAB). Here Alois PICHLER (project manager) and Eldbjørg GUNNARSON (project secretary) deserve a special acknowledgement for their professional function and personal engagement, but I also want to mention at least Simo SÄÄTELÄ and Ralph JEWELL for our highly philosophical and sometimes funny lunch-times. It was (again) good to get to know with all these people that came as visitors or colleagues to the WAB (as reported above), and I hope to be able to hold further contact with at least some of them. A lot of what I reported on above was something I liked and was pretty fond of, so I don't want to repeat this here. The reasons and factors why I had a good and intellectually fruitful time outweigh by any measure anything critical I could bring forth.
    Besides my academic work, my social life was enriched by international contacts to students while I was living in Fantoft Studentby. Although I am a rather "old" student (whose subject necessarily involves a life-long studying), I enjoyed myself there most of the time, found a variety of international contacts to young students from all over the world, met a lot of new people and even colleagues (like Javi WEGENER). It was a good choice to live a bit outside the city instead of choosing the offered place near the research site (and it was cheaper, too). Taking the bike almost every day a stretch of all together around 12 km to and fro was a necessary and nice sportive exercise making up for all the back-breaking conceptual analysis a serious philosopher has to undergo (and although I do not unguardedly see myself as an analytic philosopher, I certainly sign up to this understanding of philosophical labour).
    Since I have to some extent grown into Norwegian habits, some of them (like mountain walking) related to my Austrian background, I can imagine quite well to return to this kingdom or even to live here for some years.

    What I did not like was the rather bad equipment in my office, presumably due to lack of money: A restricted access to phone, a bad screen which noticeably damaged my already bad sight (philosophers really do read a lot, on screen, in books and manuscripts, especially if working in an archive), a rather bad keyboard (philosophers, or at least I, do write a lot), and that I even had to pay for my printouts and copies. By the way, the window in my office could not be closed properly, and the electric light was rather dim and bad, although it burnt sometimes over a fortnight in a waste of energy that cannot make up for the (neon) bulbs' bad performance. I can't imagine that sharing a toilet with the women having offices at my floor complies with the Norwegian Law, not to mention the lack of space and free air in such little chambers we all here have to be content with. All these failures must not be blamed on the WAB or the staff, but only on the notorious lack of sufficient funding.
    In addition to that I found Norwegian bureaucracy sometimes slow and often strange in its competence, and that shall purport that whenever I thought that the administration would just work according to its duties and according to what it is supposed to do, it did not do so, not in the slightest sense, yet whenever I undertook steps, engaging myself on my own costs and spending my time in contacting people or trying to find the people in charge, I eventually always encountered either some source of information by accident or ran into some willing and nice person who proved to be finally helpful, although sometimes these people were not those who were actually responsible. In this respect I am indebted to my contact person Per Magnus KOMMANDANTVOLD at Norges Forskningsåd, the Norwegian institution which provided the funds for my sojourn and grandly paid my scholarship (including an extra amount for participating at a conference, cf. sup.), but also to Bjørn Fredrik BRÅTEN (Department of Philosophy at UiB). I secretly trace these failures to a deep rooted lack of responsibility, but since the concept of "national mentality" is not trustworthy at all, I am most likely wrong in my attempt of an explanation.
    Deplorably scarce was information about the Norwegian taxation system, about conditions of employment or the Norwegian social insurance system to which I belonged (it might consist of rumours only). Yet I am grateful that I got access to some social insurance system at all, thanks to the help of the aforementioned Per Magnus KOMMANDANTVOLD. Obviously academic researchers are believed to live eternal lives, unbothered by any illness or disease, and that they work somtimes 12 hours a day and an extra hour reading at night not for the sake of humanity but out of pure fun and even voluntarily; although I had and still have a lot of fun when doing philosophical work, I am far from enjoying an eternal life, and despite my body's good shape, my body is in principle not free from harm, agony, colds, infections, and other quite common illnesses, and as far as I know and as far as it is knowable at all, I enjoy no eternal or non invulnerable life.
    A further detrimental point was that the process of decision making was partly intransparent, partly completely overregulated, so that one easily got the impression that people spend more effort on working out regulations than on doing their real jobs. Some, if not many of these annoying characteristics can also be found in Austria, the country I come from, and my disappointment might stem from my partly right, partly wrong, partly just unfitting expectation that it would be different and better abroad.

    Why I nevertheless want to return can be easily explained: I found a teaching job here with autumn 2002 (cf. sup.), and like the nature as well as the people. I have friends among the Norwegians, won new acquaintances, and not only within the academic milieu. I enjoyed doing research here, and I accomplished a lot of work, in some respect more than I reckoned with.--

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    0 This version of the application was slightly revised for the purpose of making it publicly available without rendering too personal remarks (which can be found in parts of the sections below, especially inf.) or missing a good presentation. (back)-

    1 I.e. GELBMANN, Gerhard (2000): Die pragmatische Kommunikationstheorie. Rekonstruktion, wissenschaftsphilosophischer Hintergrund, Kritik. Dissertation, Universität Wien; Frankfurt am Main: Verlag der Deutschen Hochschulschriften (cf. especially op. cit. Chapter V pp. 631 - 692).- See also GELBMANN, Gerhard (2001) "Watzlawick (et al.) und Wittgenstein: Anregungen, Bezugnahmen, Parallelen", Jahrbuch der Deutschen Ludwig Wittgenstein Gesellschaft 2001, Passau: forthcoming. (back)-

    2 Developed in Palo Alto, CA, by Gregory BATESON, Janet H. BEAVIN, Richard FISCH, Don D. JACKSON, Paul WATZLAWICK, John H. WEAKLAND et al. (back)-

    3 This project is attended by Prof. Dr. Herbert HRACHOVEC during the years 2000 and 2001. (back)-

    4 I.e. TS 213 according to George Henrik von WRIGHT's catalogue; Cornell Volumes 89a-d. (back)-

    5 This has in the meanwhile already been anticipated in: GELBMANN, Gerhard (2002): Observations on Transactions. A Discussion of Watzlawick's Second Axiom. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, forthcoming soon. (back)-

    6 Cf. e. g. HARK, Michel ter (1990): Beyond the Inner and the Outer. Wittgenstein's Philosophy of Psychology. Dordrecht: Kluwer; ) or DRURY, Maurice O'Connor (1973, 1996): The Danger of Words and writings on Wittgenstein. Studies in Philosophical Psychology. London : Routledge and Kegan & Bristol: Thoemmes. (back)-

    7 GELBMANN, Gerhard: "Om noen Forutsetningene for Arne Næss' Livsfilosofi. En filosofisk recensjon", electronic document:æss/livsfil.htm (last access: April 2002). (back)-

    8 Cf.  STACHOWIAK, Herbert (1973): Allgemeine Modelltheorie. Wien: Springer; STACHOWIAK, Herbert (1989b): "Theorie und Metatheorie des Gesellschaftlichen und das pragmatische Desiderat". In: STACHOWIAK, Herbert (Hrg.) (1989a): Pragmatik. Handbuch pragmatischen Denkens. Band III: Allgemeine philosophische Pragmatik. Hamburg: Meiner. 315-342; GELBMANN, Gerhard (2002a): "Sind Zahlen Attribute?", electronic document:, also available at the open digital archive of e-texts "Sammelpunkt. Elektronisch archivierte Theorie" (last update: April 2002); GELBMANN, Gerhard (2002b): "The Neopragmatistic Conception of Model", Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium of the Austrian Association for Semiotics »Myths, Rites, Simulacra. Semiotic Viewpoints«, University of Applied Arts Vienna, Dec. 2000, Angewandte Semiotik 18/19, Vol.I, 2001: 595-614; electronic document: (last update: Jan. 2002); GELBMANN, Gerhard (2003): The Pragmatologic Conception of »Model«. In preparation (book, title only sketched). (back)-

    9 Cf. GELBMANN, Gerhard: "Skript, Text, Werk, Album. Zu Alois PICHLERs Umgang mit WITTGENSTEINs Schreiben", electronic document:, also available at the open digital archive of e-texts "Sammelpunkt. Elektronisch archivierte Theorie" (last update: April 2002). I.a. I tried to clarify the problem of editing WITTGENSTEIN, especially as far as the discussion of TS 213 is concerned. (back)-

    10 Among the participants were two students at the edge of starting their master-thesis, viz. Deirdre C. P. SMITH and Helle NYVOLD, later on Sveinung Gislerud MONSTAD came, besides a doctoral student from Spain joining in the beginning, i.e. Javier Garcia WEGENER (Universidad de Oviedo). A further student at medium level, Camilla BLIKSTAD, attended mid May, and two further students at medium level, Anlaug MOTLAND and Inger HAUKENES, stepped into our discussions with beginning of June. So in the average we were around 4 persons with Deirdre and Helle as the "hard core".
    The meetings were regularly held and immediately announced on the quoted web-site (, but also posted via the internal e-mailing-list, cared for by Vigdis KVAM (UiB). (back)-

    11 The lectures give incomplete aspective approaches towards this term of "semiotic subjectivity". The third lecture (on my book GELBMANN 2002, cf. inf. note 5) is closer related to questioning "emotions" within the frame of my research-theme, the other two are more to its margin. (back)-

    12 This trip did not cause me extra costs and was in fact a good combination of some practical tasks and a cheaper way of travelling from Austria to Norway: Originally, before I came to Norway, I found out in spring 2002, that a six-month-ticket to Norway is more expensive than two three-month-tickets. So I booked two such flights, what gave me the chance to spend some days at home in the meantime. (back)-

    13 Just a note: The discussion about text-encoding and mark-up is, to express it in terms of Pragmatologic Model Theory, a discussion about second-order modelling (i.e. about models of the type 2). If the script of a text to be encoded is the representation of a text (in the sense of PICHLER, cf. sup.), and if the encoding of a text according to some mark-up language is a representation of one's reading of this text, then the semantics of a mark-up language deal with the representation(s) of representation(s) of (general and algebraic features) of (a given) text. So HUITFELDT's and BERG's questioning of what the meaning of mark-up is, is in my point of view a problem which falls within the frame of a pragmatic understanding of modelling: The meaning of mark-up is then to make explicit one's reading of a text (out of a script to be encoded).
    Unfortunately I was not aware of these consequences to bring them forth in the discussion of BERG's and HUITFELDT's presentations, but I am confident that SPERBERG-McQUEEN (who presided the seminar as its chair), Edward VANHOUTTE, etc. might understand and share my view, at least partly. This is a theoretical insight into what text-encoding theoreticians are doing, or in what way their labouring can be understood. (back)-

    14 Cf. the project-descriptions of "Tracing Wittgenstein". (back)-

    15 Cf. op. cit. sup. (back)-

    16 Cf. op. cit. sup. (back)-

    17 I still keep up my point (which I until recently only have entered in private handwritten notes and probably also in my personal diaries from former research periods at the WAB), that the German usage of the verb "vorstellen" (i) in phrases like "ein Ding als ein anderes Ding vorstellen" or "ein Ding stellt ein anderes Ding vor" is almost indistinguishable from the verb "darstellen", and is so to such a degree that the same phrases could be rendered as "ein Ding als ein anderes Ding darstellen" or "ein Ding stellt ein anderes Ding dar", at least in the sometimes a bit old-fashioned German WITTGENSTEIN uses (in the "Tractatus", but also elsewhere) or KANT, SCHOPENHAUER, HEIDEGGER, etc. apply (which does not mean that these or other German authors do not know the psychological or idealistic usage of "vorstellen", yet WITTGENSTEIN and they also just sometimes use the term just equivalently with "darstellen").
    Only in the phrase (ii) "sich eine Sache vorstellen" there is an idealistic or psychological usage of the verb, denoting the activity of mind or phantasy, and such a phrase can be translated with "to fancy something" or "to have something in one's mind". There is a morphological or even grammatical linguistic criterion to differ the case (i) from (ii), viz. that in (ii) the reflexive pronoun has to be applied with the accusative of the object, what is never done in (i), because in (i) there is a nominative combined with an accusative without any reflexive pronoun. In the "Tractatus" in all occurrences of the verb "vorstellen" (including its separated form like "... stellt ... vor ... ") there is no reflexive pronoun with an accusative to be found which refers to this term, and hence we always find the term "vorstellen" in the sense of (i) and never along the lines of (ii). In modern German, the type (i) has nowadays become rare, but in WITTGENSTEIN's time it was not, at least not in literary or academic language. And I state this with the authority of a native German speaker and born Austrian, who grew up in Vienna and lives at its very outskirts.
    The usage (iii) of "vorstellen", namely "eine Person einer anderen Person vorstellen", should not bother us, because this has to be translated as "to introduce a person to another person"; so it takes the accusative form of the personal pronoun of the third person singular with the dative of the object (in this case also a personal pronoun) towards this self-presentation is performed: "Wir stellen uns ihm vor"  -  "We introduce ourselves to him". Yet a slightly confusing case is the sentence: "Er stellt sich ihr vor", because here it looks like the case (ii); yet the case (ii) in this example would in German be "Er stellt sich sie vor" (because "ihr" is the dative of the personal pronoun of the third person singular, "sie" is its accusative), in the sense that he has a picture of her in his mind, that he imagines her, etc. So the former German phrase in (iii) has nevertheless to be translated as "He introduces himself to her", and not "He fancies himself to her" or even "He fancies her to himself" (what is weird), since although the tiny word "sich" is here in German the reflexive pronoun, it does not go with an accusative ("sie") but with a dative ("ihr").
    It is possible to say "Ich stelle mir eine Sache vor", but then this has in English to be "I imagine (to myself) some stuff" sec. (ii) and not "I introduce myself to some stuff" sec. (iii), although it might logically be the case that one has to fancy something in order to make oneself acquainted with something (like HERTZ imagined a new method in order to represent knowledge). So, indeed, it is throughout on the lines of WITTGENSTEIN's philosophical method that we can decide what the term "vorstellen" means and how it should be translated, namely along purely grammatical lines. Speculations about any hidden idealism in WITTGENSTEIN's "Tractatus" (or about any involvement of a thinking subject because WITTGENSTEIN in academic rhetorical phrases talks about a "wir" which construes pictures of the world) can all be ruled out along such lines of linguistic knowledge. It might be hard to grasp for some Anglo-American readers of the "Tractatus", but one has really to have a sound knowledge of German in order to be able to translate and to understand this book. This is a logical and quite obvious point, yet I had to enter it and we have to retain it. I might not be the first who makes this point, though, but it is better to repeat it than to come across any hermeneutical rubbish which grew on such faulty grounds like mushrooms grow in a thick, sticky, and wet wood.
    So the term "vorstellen" has absolute no idealistic meaning in WITTGENSTEIN's opus, especially not in the "Tractatus", in contrast to HERTZ, who understands "Bild" as "Vorstellung" and as "Darstellung", and who from the onset writes about "Bild" as "Vorstellung" in a psychological sense, of which one has to give a "Bild" as a "Darstellung" (or "Darlegung") in a logical or even mathematical sense in order to achieve a scientific status of one's ideas. HERTZ, to rephrase his undertaking (which impressed WITTGENSTEIN a lot, cf. JANIK 1994/95 and JANIK 1999), has a new "Vorstellung" about a method, and this new idea is that one has to arrive at pictures ("Vorstellungen") of how things are by exhibiting ("darstellen" or "darlegen") how one's "Vorstellungen" as the pictures in one's mind conform with the things (or the pictures of them in public as their "Darstellungen"). So HERTZ has

            (1) a "Vorstellung" about (2) "Darstellungen" of (3) "Vorstellungen".

    The first occurrence of the term "Vorstellung" (1) makes the following scientific, it is a methodological idea, whereas the occurrence at place (3) of the term "Vorstellung" like the occurrence at spot (2) of the term "Darstellung" denote HERTZ's term "Bild", i.e. "picture" or "image". The occurrence (1) of "Vorstellung" can be translated as "idea", it concerns the "new form" in which HERTZ wants to give the basics of Mechanics, so he has an idea about a method concerning the new form of representation ("Darlegung"), whereas the second occurrence (i.e. spot (3)) of the term "Vorstellung" should not be translated as idea (as already JANIK & TOULMIN 1973: 139 noticed, in critique of Ernst MACH; but nevertheless JANIK 1994/95 and again JANIK 1999 concedes that MACH is nearer to HERTZ than he originally thought, and he furthermore notices resemblances of HERTZ to PEIRCE which I also see, cf. op. non publ. cit. inf.).
    With this I hope to have settled a discussion which stimulated a lot of philosophical head busting. In reading HERTZ we might feel tempted by WITTGENSTEINian philosophy to attribute WITTGENSTEIN the HERTZian usage of the nouns "Vorstellung" and "Darstellung" and "Bild", yet this is wrong. HERTZ understanding of the term "Bild" is wider than WITTGENSTEIN's, and although WITTGENSTEIN was influenced by HERTZ, their terminologies differ. For WITTGENSTEIN "Bild" means "Darstellung" (as JANIK and TOULMIN have it), for HERTZ it can mean both (and here I depart from JANIK & TOULMIN 1973). (back)-

    18 The working title of this book, composed in English, is "The Pragmatologic Conception of »Model«. Stachowiak, Peirce, Morris, Hertz" (henceforward referred to as GELBMANN 2003). (back)-

    19 The title of this opus, written in German, might be "Die pragmatische Kommunikationstheorie. Rekonstruktion, Hintergrund, Kritik" and it is an overworked, partly enlarged and partly shortened, second edition of GELBMANN 2000, op. cit. sup. (back)-

    20 This is chiefly intended as an incomplete bibliography which contains only those titles which were read and/or used during my sojourn at the WAB, including reference materials, dictionaries or bibliographies such as LAPOINTE 1980, SHANKER & SHANKER 1986, FRONGIA & McGUINNESS 1990a, DRUDIS-BALDRICH 1992, GLOCK 1996. (back)-

    21 The first edition of this book, HACKER 1972, had the title "Insight and illusion: Wittgenstein on philosophy and the metaphysics of experience". The second edition, HACKER 1986, differs significantly and can be regarded as not only a different book but a substantial improvement. That's why I marked the reference to the first edition with an asterisk.- This opus was once in the ownership of the WAB but got unfortunately lost. (back)-

    22 I have to admit that this list reveals some personal preferences and that I did not cross-check if some of these journals or some of its volumes are not held by some of the various libraries in Bergen (what I can hardly believe). I did not quote journals like Mind or Philosophical Investigations, because they are so widely known and held by so many libraries, that it would be a waste of money to get them here at the WAB; this is no indication that I regard these journals as unimportant. (back)-
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